DEL NORTE—Summitville has a long Rio Grande County history. It was one of Colorado’s largest and richest gold mining sites. Gold was discovered in 1870 in small amounts. The miners did not stay in the area as it was still considered Ute territory, and the winters were extreme at 11,500-12,000-feet elevation adding to difficulties. As the development of mining started in surrounding mountains, the Brunot Treaty of 1872-73 removed the Utes from the mountain area.
According to a history provided by Rio Grande County Commissioner Karla Shriver, “There were some small groups of miners who mined in the area in the early 1870s. These were underground, near-surface mining type of activities for gold. Then on Sept. 13, 1873, P.J. Peterson and his partner, F.H. Brandt discovered the Little Annie and the Margaretta Mines.
“The Little Annie was named for Peterson’s daughter, Annie, who would have been four or five years old at the time the mine was discovered. The Margaretta was named for a relative of Mr. Brandt’s. The Little Annie is still the most famous and richest mine in the Summit District, and at one time was the third richest gold mine in the state of Colorado. Annie’s mine was high in the mountains, and a tram was built to take ore down to the processing site. P.J. Peterson paid nine Swedes $1.50/ft. to build the tram in 60 days. The tram started operation July 8, 1876.
“Soon after the discovery of the Little Annie and Margaretta mines came 14 saloons, a newspaper (Summitville Nugget), two general stores, a post office, a signal station, an assay office, five eating houses, a bakery, a butcher shop, a feed store, a lumber yard, three blacksmiths, a shoemaker and nine mills to serve the population of 600.
“At one time, the population was 1,500 with nine mills in operation. By 1883, the town was deserted and was almost destroyed by a forest fire. By 1885, there were more than 250 individual claims in operation. The site was soon mined out, and by 1893, the Summitville area was deserted again.
“During the next 20-23 years, operations came and went in the area. A second Summitville gold rush began after miner Jack Picken and partner Judge Jessie Wiley established a lease on the Little Annie mine. Pickens had discovered another incredibly rich vein of gold at the site in 1902 and kept silent for 24 years until he could find a way to obtain a lease for the Little Annie mine in 1926.
“The town was revived in 1934 when some of the mines were reopened. Through 1949, total gold produced reached 257,000 ounces from approximately 270,000 metric tons of ore from the underground mines. There were 70 homes for miners and their families as well as a bathhouse, bunkhouse, mess hall, post office, amusement hall and a two-room schoolhouse. There was an integrate water system that was installed throughout.
“Summitville’s population grew to 700 in less than a year. And it became the largest mining camp in the state. By 1938, Summitville had two operating mills, two stores, a school, and 60-70 occupied residences as well as a large boarding house with 300 men. The population grew to as much as 1,500 with over 900 men on the payroll.
“During the 1940s, copper was being mined as well as gold. The town produced a lot of copper during the World War II era. By 1956, the population was only 12 miners. The town was abandoned, but mining continued into the 1990s
“In 1984, an area of 1,230 acres in Summitville area was acquired by the Canadian-based Galactic Resources Ltd., a subsidiary Summitville Consolidated Mining Company, Inc. (SCMCI). They began a new large-scale open pit operation covering 550 acres. New techniques were used to extract gold from otherwise uneconomic ore. A cyanide spill leaked chemicals into the Alamosa River.
“The mining operations were finished in October 1991 with the leaching continuing until March 1992, when Galactic Resources filed for bankruptcy. Gold and silver were the minerals mined. SCMCI then closed the site and converted on-site equipment for the detoxification process, with around 160 million U.S. gallons of stored water needing treatment. After the company insolvency proceedings were completed in a British Columbia court, the U.S. government declared the site a superfund cleanup site in 1994 and spent $155,000,000 of public funds cleaning up the site.
“The main problem was the contaminated water held in an inadequate pond system. Another source of contamination was water leaking from older underground workings.
“Millions of years ago, the rocks in the Summitville area were subjected to acid-sulfate alteration, which causes the streams that drain the area to be naturally acidic and naturally high in metals. The very names of nearby creeks are evidence of poor natural water quality: Iron Creek, Alum Creek and Bitter Creek. The mining at Summitville added to the issue, by exposing more rock surface to weathering, increasing acidity and concentrations of dissolved metals in runoff from the mine area. The degradation in Summitville runoff water quality has its origin in both decades-old mining structures, such as the Reynold’s adit, and the open-pit mining of 1985-1992.
In 2014, a collaborative partnership evolved between Rio Grande County, the Rio Grande Watershed Emergency Action Coordination Team (RWEACT), the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment and EPA. A vision evolved to promote heritage tourism in the area. Funding from the County, RWEACT, DOLA, CDPHE and EPA has built a park shelter, picnic tables and included four interpretive signs. This area is visited by many visitors each year as the area is accessible by a good two-wheel drive road, and the area has many ATV, mountain biking and hiking trails.”
Guided tours of the Summitville mine and water treatment plant, along with a dedication ceremony, will take place on Friday, July 14 and Saturday, July 15. Participants should bring a hat, light jacket, sunscreen, sturdy walking shoes and a sack lunch to enjoy the day. The tours will begin on the hour, and visitors are welcome to stay as long as they want. Please call Rio Grande County Commissioner Karla Shriver at 719-850-5808 for more information.